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My World / Benim dnyam » Genel K羹lt羹r » Biyografiler
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Osman Bey ( 09.05.1256)- (10.11.1324)
Melih_Akaslan

Osmanl覺 Devleti\'nin Kurucusu





Saltanat覺: 1299-1326
Babas覺: Erturul Gazi -Annesi: Hayme Hatun
Doumu: 1258 Vefat覺: 1326





Ouzlar覺n Kay覺 boyundan, Türkiye Selçuklular覺n覺n uç beyi Erturul Gâzi\'nin olu olup, 1258 senesinde Söüt\'te dodu. Küçük yatan îtibâren 襤slâm ilimlerini örenen Osman Gâzi, ayr覺ca mükemmel bir askerî tâlim ve terbiye gördü. 1277\'de Anadolu\'nun 襤slâmlat覺r覺l覺p, Türklemesi faâliyetlerine kat覺lan gönül sultanlar覺ndan ve ahîlerden biri olan eyh Edebâlî\'nin k覺z覺 ile evlendi. Babas覺 Erturul Gâzi\'nin 1281\'de vefat覺 üzerine bey seçilip idâreyi ele ald覺.

Osman Bey, Kay覺lar覺n ba覺na geçince Söüt\'ü kendisine merkez yaparak Akçakoca, Gâzi Abdurrahman, Aykut Alp ve Konur Alp gibi beylerle Bizans\'a kar覺 fetihlere giriti. 1285\'te Kulaca Hisar覺 fethedildi. 1288\'de 襤negöl ve Karacahisar tekfurlar覺n覺n kuvvetlerini Ekizce\'de bozguna uratt覺. Bu savata Osman Gâzi\'nin kardei Saru Batu ehit oldu.

Osmanl覺lar覺n daha sonra Karacahisar, Tarakl覺 ve Göynük\'ü elde etmesi üzerine, bölge tekfurlar覺 ittifak ederek Osman Gâzi\'yi bir düün münasebetiyle öldürmek istediler. Dostu, Harmankaya hâkimi Köse Mihal\'in (ki daha sonra 襤slâmiyet\'i kabûl ederek Mihal Gâzi ad覺n覺 alm覺t覺r.) haber vermesi ile vaziyeti örenen Osman Gâzi süratle harekete geçerek Bilecik ve Yarhisar\'覺 zaptetti. Gelini ele geçirerek Nilüfer ad覺n覺 verip, olu Orhan Gâzi ile nikahlad覺.

1299\'da Türkiye Selçuklu sultanl覺覺ndaki iktidar boluundan faydalanan Osman Gâzi istiklâlini îlân etti. 1301\'de Yeniehir\'i alarak 襤znik ve Bursa\'n覺n fethinin yolunu açt覺. Bursa, Kite ve Atranos tekfurlar覺n覺n kuvvetlerini Koyunhisar mevkiinde bozguna uratt覺. Bu zaferden sonra Kestel, Kite ve Ulubat kaleleri Osmanl覺lar覺n eline geçti.

1308\'de 襤znik\'in en mühim ileri karakolu olan Karahisar ele geçirildi. Böylece 襤znik-襤zmit karayolu Türklerin hâkimiyetine girmi oldu. Osman Bey art覺k bata Bursa olmak üzere 襤znik ve 襤zmit\'in zabt覺n覺 ilk hedef olarak görüyordu. 1314 y覺l覺nda balayan Bursa kuatmas覺, on seneden fazla sürdü. 1324\'de hastalanan Osman Bey, kumanday覺 olu Orhan\'a devretti.

Osman Gazi sâlih bir müslüman olup, 襤slam ahlâk覺n覺n iyi ve güzel vas覺flar覺na sahipti. Az say覺daki airet kuvvetleriyle Bizans ordusunu ve tekfurlar覺n覺 üst üste malup edip zaferler kazanarak dünyan覺n en uzun ömürlü hânedân覺n覺 ve en büyük devletlerinden birini kurdu. Bir taraftan fetihlere devam ederken, dier taraftan devlet tekîlât覺n覺n müesseselerini mükemmel bir ekilde kurmaya ve sistemletirmeye çal覺t覺. Ömrü, Rum kâfirleri ile savamakla ve 襤slâmiyet\'i yaymakla geçti. Vefat edecei zaman, olu Orhan Bey\'e gönderdii vasiyetnâmesi, 襤slâmiyet\'e olan sevgi ve sayg覺s覺n覺 ve Türk milletinin rahat ve huzurunu düündüünü ve insan haklar覺na da gönülden bal覺l覺覺n覺 aç覺kça bildirmektedir.

Osman Gâzi\'nin, Olu Orhan Gâzi\'ye Nasihat覺

\"Oul! Din ilerini her eyden evvel ele al覺p, yürütmek gayret ve esas覺n覺 daima göz önünde bulundur ve bu esas覺 sak覺n geveklie uratma. Çünkü bir farz覺n yerine getirilmesini salamak, din ve devletin kuvvetlenmesine sebep olur.

Din gayretine sahip olmayan, sefahate dükün olan, tecrübe edilmemi kimselere devlet ilerini verme! Zira, yaratan覺ndan korkmayan bir kimse, yaratt覺klar覺ndan da çekinmez.

Zulümden ve hangisi olursa olsun bid\'atten, yani 襤slâmiyet\'e ayk覺r覺 eylerden son derece uzak dur! Seni zulüm ve bid\'ate tevik edip sürükleyenleri, devletinden uzaklat覺r ki, bunlar seni y覺k覺l覺a sürüklemesinler.

Allahü teâlân覺n r覺zas覺 için, devlet hizmetinde ömrünü tüketen devlet adamlar覺n覺 daima gözet. Böyle k覺ymetli kimselerin vefat覺ndan sonra, aile efrad覺n覺 koru, ihtiyac覺 olanlar覺n da ihtiyac覺n覺 kar覺la, tebeandan hiç kimsenin mal覺na mülküne dokunma. Hak sahiplerine hakk覺n覺 ver, lay覺k olanlara ihsan ve ikramlarda bulun ve ailelerini de gözet. Özellikle, devletin ruhu mesabesinde olan ve en büyük dayana覺 bulunan asker taifesini güzelce idare edip rahatlar覺n覺 temin eyle.

Devletin bedeninde kuvvet mesabesinde olan hakiki alimleri ve fazilet sahiplerini, edip ve yazarlar覺n覺, sanat erbab覺n覺 gözetip koru. Onlara hürmet, ihsan ve ikramda bulun. Bir ülkede, olgun bir alimin, bir arifin, bir velinin bulunduunu duyarsan, uygun ve lay覺k bir usul ve ifade ile onu memlekete getirt. Onlara her türlü imkan覺 tan覺yarak ülkene yerletir ki, hükümetin süresince alim ve arifler, bilginler memleketinde çoals覺n. Din ve devlet ileri nizama oturup ilerlesin.

Sak覺n, orduya ve zenginlie marur olma. Hakiki alim ve ariflere, bilginlere hürmet edip, saray覺nda onlara yer ver. Benim halimden ibret al ki, zay覺f, güçsüz bir kar覺nca misali, hiç lay覺k olmad覺覺m halde buraya geldim ve Allahü tealan覺n nice ihsanlar覺na ve inayetlerine kavutum. Sen de benim uyduum ve uygulad覺覺m nizam覺 uygula. Muhammed aleyhisselâm覺n dinini, bu yüce dinin mensuplar覺n覺 ve itaat eden dier tebean覺 himaye eyle! Allahü teâlân覺n hakk覺n覺 ve kullar覺n覺n hakk覺n覺 gözet. Dinimizin tayin ettii beytülmaldeki gelirin ile kanaat eyle! Devletin zaruri ihtiyaçlar覺 d覺覺nda sarfiyatta bulunmaktan son derece sak覺n! Senden sonra geleceklere de ayn覺 nasihatlerde bulun ve iyice tembih eyle. Daima adalet ve insaf üzerine bulun. Zulme meydan verme. Herhangi bir ie balayaca覺n zaman Allahü teâlân覺n yard覺m覺na s覺覺n! Tebean覺, dümanlar覺n ve zalimlerin sald覺r覺lar覺ndan koru. Haks覺z olarak hiç kimseye muamelede bulunma. Daima halk覺n覺 honut edecek eyleri aray覺p, yap覺lmas覺n覺 sala. Onlar覺n gönüllerini kazanmay覺, bunun devam覺n覺 ve artmas覺n覺 büyük nimet bil! Tebean覺n sana olan güveninin sars覺lmamas覺na son derece dikkat eyle!\"

Osman Bey\'in Rüyas覺

Bizans\'覺n hakimiyetindeki bat覺 Anadolu sihat diyar覺 olduundan, bölgede gaza niyetiyle pek çok kumandan, mücahit dervi ve herbiri gönül sultan覺 eyh ve alim bulunuyordu. Osman Gazi, Anadolu\'nun 襤slamlat覺r覺l覺p, Türklemesi faaliyetine kat覺lan bu gönül sultanlar覺ndan ve ahilerden biri olan Karamanl覺 eyh Edebali\'nin sohbetlerini hiç kaç覺rmamaya gayret ederdi. 1277 senesinde, Edebali hazretlerinin dergah覺nda misafir olduu bir gün acaip bir rüya gördü. Rüyas覺nda, hocas覺 Edebali\'nin koynundan bir ay覺n ç覺k覺p, kendi koynuna girdiini, arkas覺ndan da kendi göbeinden bir ç覺nar aac覺n覺n bitip, alemi tuttuunu, gölgesinde nice dalar覺n bulunup, nehirlerin akt覺覺n覺, bir çok insanlar覺n kaynat覺覺n覺, kimisinin bahçe ve tarla sulay覺p, kimisinin çemeler ak覺tt覺覺n覺 gördü. Gördüü rüyay覺 ertesi gün hocas覺na anlatt覺. eyh Edebali O\'na; \"Müjde ey Osman! Hak teala sana ve senin evlad覺na saltanat verdi. Bütün dünya, evlad覺n覺n himayesinde olacak, k覺z覺m Mal Hatun da sana e olacak.\" deyip rüyas覺n覺 tabir etti. On dokuz ya覺nda iken eyh Edebali\'nin k覺z覺 Mal Hatun ile evlendi. Bu izivaçtan Orhan Gazi dodu. Orhan Gazi\'nin doduu s覺rada, Erturul Gazi de vefat etti (1281). Baz覺 kaynaklarda Edebali\'nin k覺z覺n覺n ad覺 Bala Hatun olarak geçmekte ve Mal Hatun\'un Ömer Bey\'in k覺z覺 olduu yaz覺lmaktad覺r.





English Biography

OSMAN GHAZI

Osman Ghazi is the founder of Ottoman Empire. His state was called Ottoman (Osmanli), in reference to his name. Establishment of Ottoman state constitutes a series of miracles. A state founded near Sogut, developed suddenly and became a giant empire. Ten sultans acceding the Ottoman throne were energetic and skillful in state governance and were great commanders at the same time. No nation\'s history showed conqueror sultans succeeding each other for a period of three centuries. After Osman Ghazi, Orhan Gazi, Murat Hüdavendigâr, Y覺ld覺r覺m Bayezid, Mehmet Çelebi, Murat the 2nd, Fatih Mehmet, Bayezid\'覺 Veli, Yavuz Selim and Süleyman the magnificent ascended the throne. No other continuous and long-living state was established in world history other than Rome and Ottomans. The state established by Osman Ghazi lasted for exactly 624 years

Therefore, Osman Ghazi is a notable and powerful state founder. Ottoman history is full of great events. The works of Ottoman civilization still stand with all their grandeur.
Osman Ghazi was born in Sogut in 1258. His mother was Hayme Ana. His father was Ertugrul Ghazi, his grandfather was Suleyman Shah. His real name is Otman. The word \"Ot\" meant \"fire\" and \"man\" meant \"man\" in old Turkish. Osman Ghazi is from Kayi clan of Bozok branch of Oghuzes.

Oghuzes were called Turkmen after they accepted Islam. All Kayis wore Turkmen clothes. Those were fair skinned, brown haired, hazel eyed people. They were strong in body and high in morals. Kayis never mingled with Mongols or Persians or Arabs or Christian nations in order to protect their racial features and spiritual nobility. Turks filling Anatolia kept all of their moral qualities and virtues of being a Turk. Their world domination idea living in their spirit was never eliminated. Therefore, they always conquered continents as raiders, and dominated on many nations.

Osman Ghazi was brought up in Sogut. He took part in wars together with his father. He was a brave and stouthearted youth. He was of medium height, had broad shoulders, long arms, round face, hazel eyes, ram nose, and circular beard and he was black beetle-browed. He was both a good soldier and interested in literature. We find the following poem of his in Hayrullah Tarihi.
Kurt olup, gel gir sürüye
Aslan ol, bakma geriye
Çar edüp, haydi çeriye
Dil geçidini hisar yap

Osman Erturul olusun,
Ouzhan Karahan neslisin,
Hakk覺n bir kenter kulusun
襤stanbul\'u aç gülzar yap!

A love story he experienced in his youth is still known. He used to go frequently to the house of a sheik inhabiting in a village called 襤tburnu in the vicinity of Eskiehir. This person was one of ahi saints. Sheik Edebali had a very beautiful daughter called Balahün. Osman Ghazi fell in love with this girl. Although he wanted her from her father, the Sheik replied that he would not give his daughter to the son of an emir. However, Osman was really in love with Balahün.

One night he had a dream. In his dream, he was lying down next to Sheik Edebali.Then a moon rose from Edebali\'s body. After rising, it set and went into Osman\'s body. Then a tree rooted on Osman\'s belly grew. It grew and turned green. It covered all mountains with the shadow of its branches. He saw four rows of mountains next to the tree, which were Caucasian, Atlas, Toros and Balkan mountains. Tigris, Euphrates, Nile and Danube rivers originated from the roots of the tree. The waters from those mountains were flowing among gardens of rose and cypress. There were ships sailing on them like sea. Farms were full of crops. The hills of mountains were coated with dense forests. There were cities in all parts of valleys. All of those cities had a moon over their golden domes, muezzins were calling to prayer from numerous minarets, the sounds of which mingled with the tweets of nightingales and colorful parrots and birds. The leaves of the tree began to get longer like sheaths of swords. Then a wind blew and turned the leaves of the tree to Istanbul The city was shining like a diamond between two gems and emerald between two seas and lands, thus forming the gem of a ring embodied by a wide country covering the whole world. Osman woke up while wearing that ring.

He went and told his dream to Sheik Edebali. Sheik laughed and said:
Osman, God bless your and your generation\'s sultanate. My daughter Balahun be your wife. Let\'s make the wedding immediately. Osman came together with his beloved girl thanks to this dream. But the first wife of Osman Ghazi is Malhatun, the daughter of Omer Bey who was a Turkmen Bey. Malhatun is the son of Orhan Ghazi.

When Ertugrul Ghazi died, Osman became the Emir, succceding him. He continued warring against Byzantium like his father. However, Byzantium despots decided to kill Osman. They attempted to do this with tricks, not war. Bilecik Governor was to marry the daughter of Yarhisar Governor. They decided to invite Osman Bey to this wedding and kill him there. However, Osman Ghazi found out their secret decision.

Osman Ghazi used to commend his goods to Bilecik Governor every time he went to a plateau. He had his goods prepared to be sent to Bilecik the same way as usual. However, he put weapons in the goods this time. He made about forty soldiers wear women clothes. He prepared them to send to Bilecik. The next day, he went to the wedding together with his son Orhan. In a moment after the wedding started and people were eating, the soldiers wearing women clothes entered the castle and killed the guards. Some of the soldiers placed themselves in trenches. When Greek Governor acted to kill Osman Ghazi, Osman Ghazi started to run toward the castle pretending to escape. The governor and Greeks followed him. But when they reached the trenches, they suddenly were surrounded by soldiers lying in wait. A bloody struggle began between the attacking soldiers and Greeks. Orhan became very useful in this war. The governor died with a severe wound. The bride, Holofira, was taken captive with her bridal veil. Osman Ghazi gave this beautiful Greek girl to his son Orhan Bey as the right of his sword. Former historians write that the name of this girl was Nilüfer Hatun, however, this name belongs to another girl in fact. Nilufer Hatun is a Turkmen girl, who is the first wife of Orhan Ghazi. Nilufer Hatun is the mother of Suleyman Pasha and Murat Hudavendigar.

In this period, Seljukian Sultans were totally ruled by Mongol Ilhanlis. No Seljukian domination remained in Anatolia. The unity of Anatolia went bad with various emirates in various regions. The Mongols were robbing Anatolian people. In this condition, Seljukian Sultan Giyasettin Mesut the 2nd, seeing the successes of Osman Ghazi, sent a decree to him. Osman Bey read aloud this decree before all ghazis (1284). And since it was totally approved, he continued warring against Byzantium, and conquered many territories. So, Seljukian Sultan sent him a banner, flag, Tabil and a golden sword as the signs of independence. In addition, he sent a white standard (1289).

After some time, Kayi Beys, seeing that Seljukian sultans were only a shadow in Anatolia, held a meeting and spoke as follows to Osman Ghazi: You are from Kayihan generation. Kayihan is among Oghuz beys. According to Oghuz rules, Khan post is Kayi generation\'s. You are worth of being a khan, we want to declare your being a khan.
In the meeting, there were people like Ahi Evren founder of Trade-Guild, Hac覺 Bekta Veli, the founder of Bektai sect, Sheik Edebali, father-in-law of Osman Ghazi. Oghuz Emirs made him sit on a white felt and lifted up for nine times. They took an oath before him.

They cried out:
God Bless Drink, health, and sultanate for you! while drinking koumiss. That day was a great festival for Turk history. Osman Ghazi declared independence being elected as a khan in 1299. Hac覺 Bekta Veli made Osman Khan wear a felt quilted turban in Horasan Style, Ahi Evren made him wear his sword. After that, band of musicians played music. After that the Seljukian decree was read. Osman Khan read this decree standing in the evening. Nine flags were erected in front of his tent.

The whole ceremony was made according to Oghuz rules. Thus, Osman Ghazi became the founder of Ottoman State. They found it appropriate to assign Karacahisar as the first government center of Ottomans. The first Sermon was read by Tursun Fakih.But money was not printed in his name.

When Osman Ghazi declared his independence, he had the following regions under his domination: Karacada, Domaniç, Söüt, Karacahisar, Eskiehir, Bilecik, 襤negöl, Yarhisar, Çak覺rp覺nar, Tarakl覺 Yenicesi, 襤nönü, Köprühisar and Bozöyük. He occupied Yeniehir and Yunthisar in the third year of his sultanate. Then the capital city was transferred to Yeniehir. He divided his country into five administrations. He gave Sultanönü to his son Orhan Bey, Eskiehir to his elder brother Gunduzalp, Inönü to Aykut Alp, Yarhisar to Hasan Alp, Inegöl to Turgut Alp. He left Bilecik to his other son Alaeddin Pasha and his father-in-law.

Then Osman Ghazi conquered Köprühisar覺 in 1302, Koyunhisar覺 in 1306. He sent his son Orhan Ghazi to invade Bursa. Bursa was invaded in 1326. At the same time, Osman Ghazi was in bed with Podagra disease. He called Orhan Ghazi, his son to him. There were Ahi emseddin, Ahi Hasan, Turgut Alp, Saltuk Alp by his bed. He said before those people: My first will to my Sons and friends is as follows: Continue warring and fighting. Reach perfect jihad and keep flag up, always. He, who among my grandsons, refrains from the right path and justice, I pray, he deprives of the mediation of the Prophet in the judgement day!

Then he turned to his son Orhan:
My Son; no sultan in the world disobeyed death. Now, death drew near with judgement and will of God. In this spiritual journey, I have to give up hope of earthly blessings. My son, I commend this state, this emirate to you. I commend you to Allah. Hold laws superior in all of your works. Love soldiers and people like your relatives, give their rights completely!

After having said those words, he wished to be buried in Bursa Gumuslu Kumbet. After a short time, he passed away in his 69 in 1326.

Osman Ghazi ruled for 19 years as an emir and 27 years as a sultan. There were no precious goods such as gold, and silver left in his heritage. There were a new turban cloth from Denizli Cloth, a horse armor, a saltcellar, a spoon holder, a pair of boots, red-colored flags from Alaehir textiles, a two ended sword, a quiver, a wooden throne, a sword, a few horses, and three flocks of sheep. The heritage of Osman Khan, who left a great state to Turkish nation as a consequence of his long lasting wars, consisted merely of those. Osman Ghazi did not receive salary from state treasury as a sultan, but lived on his sheep. He was unique in self-sacrificing as a great sultan of a great race.

 
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