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Yavuz Sultan Selim ( 06.04.1469)- (16.06.1519)
Melih_Akaslan

Osmanl覺 Sultanlar覺n覺n Dokuzuncusu




襤slam Halifelerinin Yetmidördüncüsü










Saltanat覺: 1512-1520
Babas覺: II. Bayezid Han - Annesi: Aie Hatun
Doumu: 10 Ekim 1470 Vefat覺: 22 Eylül 1520





1512 y覺l覺nda Amasya\'da dodu. Küçük yatan itibaren Kur\'an-覺 Kerim, tefsir, hadis ve f覺k覺h dersleri yan覺nda yüksek fen ilimlerini de örendi. Çok çevik ve zeki olup ok atmak, güre tutmak ve k覺l覺ç kullanmak hususunda maharet sahibiydi. Arabi ve Farisi\'yi mükemmel bir ekilde konuurdu. Babas覺 II. Bayezid padiah olduktan sonra , askeri sevk ve idare ile devlet yöneticiliini örenmesi için Trabzon\'a vali tayin edildi.

Yavuz Sultan Selim Trabzon valisi iken, ah 襤smail\'in (1502-1524) siyasi-dini faaliyetleri ile Osmanl覺 Devleti için çok büyük bir tehlike arzettiini görüyor ve ona göre tedbirler düünüyordu. Hatta zaman zaman bu devlet üzerine küçük çapta ak覺nlar da yap覺yordu. Nitekim, 24 Nisan 1512\'de babas覺n覺n yerine geçince de ilk seferini, Osmanl覺 Devleti\'ni önce bölüp parçalama, sonra da y覺kma emellerini güden Safeviler üzerine yapt覺. 襤stanbul\'da Eyüp ve dier mübarek kabirleri ziyaret ederek zafer dualar覺 yapt覺ktan sonra ordusuyla harekete geçen Selim Han günlerce yol ald覺ktan sonra nihayet 23 Austos 1514\'de Çald覺ran Ovas覺\'nda Safevi ordusuyla kar覺lat覺. Yavuz ve ordusunun kudretiyle ateli silahlar覺n üstünlüü sayesinde Osmanl覺lar parlak bir zafer kazand覺. 襤ran ordusunun büyük bölümü imha edilirken bir çok Safevi kumandan覺 ile ah 襤smail\'in zevcesi esir al覺nd覺. 襤ran\'覺n ba ehri Tebriz\'e giren Yavuz Sultan Selim Han, ehirdeki camileri tamir ettirdi ve halka huzur verdi.

Bu zafer ile Osmanl覺 hududu F覺rat\'tan Azerbeycan\'a ve 襤ran içlerine kadar uzad覺. Yavuz Sultan Selim ikinci seferini Memlüklüler üzerine yapt覺. Bu seferin as覺l sebebi Memlüklülerin Osmanl覺 Devleti\'nin kuvvetlenmesinden endie ederek ii ah 襤smail ile ittifak içerisine girmesi idi. ah 襤smail\'i bir darbede saf d覺覺 b覺rakan Cihangir padiah bu defa da y覺ld覺r覺m sureti ile M覺s覺r ordular覺n覺 24 Austos 1516\'da Mercidab覺k ve 26 Mart 1517\'de Ridaniye\'de kazand覺覺 zaferler ile perian etti. Art覺k Memlük Devleti kalmam覺, bütün Arap ülkeleri Osmanl覺 hakimiyetine girmiti. Bu durum üzerine Mekke ve Medine emiri mukaddes ehirlerin anahtarlar覺n覺 \"Hakimü\'l Harameyn\" ünvan覺 ile Yavuz Sultan Selim\'e takdim etti. Ancak dindar padiah bu ünvan覺 \"Hadimü\'l Harameyn= Mekke ve Medine\'nin hizmetçisi\" ekline çevirirek ald覺 ve evlatlar覺na böyle miras b覺rakt覺.

襤ki büyük seferin zaferle neticelenmesinden sonra bilhassa donanma faaliyetlerine h覺z veren Yavuz, devrin büyük alime Kemal-paazade\'ye niyetinin feth-i Efrenciye yani Avrupa olduunu bildirmiti. Ancak yüce Hakan\'覺n Eyüp Türbesi\'ni ziyaretle balad覺覺 bu seferine yakaland覺覺 amans覺z bir irpence hastal覺覺 mani oldu. Vefat etmeden önce musabihi Hasan Can kendisine Hakk\'a teveccüh etmesini söyleyince \"Bunca zamandan beri bizi kiminle biliyordun. Cenab-覺 Hakk\'a teveccühte bir kusur mu gördün?\" buyurarak Yasin-i erif okunmas覺n覺 istedi. Kendisi de okurken ruhunu teslim etti. Na覺 kendi ad覺 ile an覺lan camiin avlusundaki türbededir.

Osmanl覺 Devleti\'nin topraklar覺n覺 iki buçuk mislinden fazla geniletti. Babas覺ndan devrald覺覺 2,373,000 kilometrekarelik olan ülke topraklar覺 onun zaman覺nda 6,557,000 kilometrekareye ç覺kt覺.

Devlet ilerinde kesin niyet ve kati programla hareket eden Selim Han, herhangi bir devlet iini fiiliyata koymadan evvel muhtelif yollarla onun hakk覺nda alim, vezir ve sair ilgililerin fikirlerinden istifade eder ve günlerce düünür, nihayet son karar覺n覺 verdikten sonra ondan dönmez ve bu karar覺n aleyhinde söz söyleyenleri en iddetli ekilde cezaland覺r覺rd覺. Muntazaman bir casus tekilat覺 vard覺. Bu sayede gerek memleket d覺覺nda ve gerek içeriden devaml覺 bilgi al覺rd覺. Mühim ilerde bizzat tahkikat yapard覺.

襤htiam ve debdebeye ehemmiyet vermez, sadelii sever ve sade giyinirdi. Kendisi için fazla para sarf覺yla kök ve lüks eyler yap覺lmas覺n覺 istemezdi. Bir defas覺nda olu ehzade Süleyman çok süslü bir elbiseyle huzuruna girince; \"Süleyman annen ne giysin?\" (Baka bir rivayete göre \"Anana giyecek birey b覺rakmam覺s覺n.\") diyerek sitem etmiti. Hazinenin devaml覺 dolu olmas覺na dikkat ederdi.

Sultan Selim Han evliyaya rabet eder onlar覺n sonbetlerine kat覺lmay覺 bulunmaz bir nimet sayard覺. Devaml覺; \"Padiah-覺 alem olmak bir kuru kavga imi - Bir veliye bende olmak cümleden ala imi.\" buyururdu. Yavuz Sultan Selim\'in am\'da Salihiyye\'de Muhiddin-i Arabi\'ye yapt覺rd覺覺 camii, imaret ve türbeden ve bir de Konya\'da Mevlevi tekkesine getirdii sudan baka bir hay覺r yapmas覺na vakti ve zaman覺 müsait olmam覺t覺r. Hatta balatt覺覺 camiinin bile yaln覺z temellerini att覺rabilmi fakat tamamlayamam覺t覺.
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YAVUZ SULTAN SELIM
Yavuz Sultan Selim is one of the greatest Ottoman emperors. He was a great poet, strong commander and a high statesman. Yavuz Sultan Selim is the son of Beyazid the 2nd His other brothers are Korkut, Ahmet, Mahmut, Alim ah, ehinah. His mother is Gulbahar Hatun.
Yavuz Selim was born in Amasya in 1467. His mother brought him up very well. He took lessons from Halim Çelebi, one of the greatest hodjas of his age. He had an intelligence and will stronger than and superior to his elder brothers. He had all qualifications of a great statesman. He was much interested in literature. He had two Divans, one in Turkish and one in Persian. This warrior who could behead his viziers without hesitation had so much a sensitive heart that he could cry saying:
Can覺m覺 ate-i ak istila etti bu sûzite
Gözya覺mdan baka serpilecek su yoktur, when he fell in love.

He was a terrifying conquerro.
One day he said:
Land love is enough for me in the world.
When he got enthusiastic,
Selim is the Sultan of military love today
Ne hanl覺kta mukayyeddir, ne de Hakana muhtaçt覺r.
And took the world map and saddened:

This world is not enough for a sultan!
Yavuz Selim was really a stouthearted person. He was stout-built, he had the looks of a falcon and curved mustache. He was a charming man. He shaved his beard and wore one earring. He liked wearing simple clothes and eating simple food. He did not like adorning himself out. One day, his wife Hafize Aye Sultan made his son Suleyman wear an embellished cloth. Yavuz Selim, seeing his son in embellishment said: What will women wear if you are so much embellished? He was very tough indeed. He would never forgive a vizier when he saw mistaken, and beheaded immediately. The people called him Yavuz because of his heroism and toughness.
His father Beyazid the 2nd appointed him as governor to Trabzon. He was both writing poems and being engaged in state affairs at the same time; he had a craft too. In Trabzon, his son named Suleyman was born. Yavuz Selim was thoroughly examining the situation of the country when he was a governor in Trabzon. The Shiite forces from Iran were making raids on Anatolia. He was so much saddened with that. Since his father was quite old, the perfect victories of Fatih period could not be seen. There were no great viziers to govern the country too. Yavuz Selim, depressed of this situation, wrote as follows to his father: \"It is doubtless that it is not easy to accomplish state works. In my opinion, it is not appropriate for our purposes to have people who are statesmen at some positions. Maybe their loyalty may be taken advantage of. There are several people in all places of our country known for their knowledge and moral values. I tested some of your servants here for a long time. I saw that they are skillful. If they are grown, we can take advantage of them. Therefore, I dare to introduce them.\"
He was considering knowledge and morals as the most superior qualifications. His father was not able to govern the state well enough now. Some scholars in Istanbul attempted to enthrone Prince Ahmet. Yavuz Selim, having heard of that, passed to Rumelia and fought his father\'s forces. At last he acceded to the throne with his own power as the ninth sultan in 1512.
Yavuz Selim tried to realize two policies when he became the sultan. First was the eastern policy, elimination of Shiite Safevi State in Iran, and opening a gate to Middle Asia. The second was to conquer Egypt and possessing Indian Trade ways. He also wanted to become the Caliph of three hundred million Muslims taking Caliphate from the Arabs. He was strong enough to fulfil his desires. His army loved him. He had the power to command great forces.
When Yavuz Selim acceded to the throne, Shah Ismail in Safevid throne was very active. He used to make raids on Anatolia. Yavuz decided to teach a lesson to Shiites in Iran. He established a divan in Edirne and prepared. His army departed from Edirne on 19 March 1514, and crossed to Anatolian side. Immediately Sinan Pasha, the Anatolian General Governor, attended th earmy. Grand Vizier Dukakinzade Ahmet Pasha pioneered. The number of all forces was 180.000 people.
When the army came near Erzincan, Yavuz Selim wrote a letter to Shah Ismail and said: \"You caused instigation, you swore Islam personages. The punishment of this is being killed, so I am coming. Immediately return the Ottoman countries you occupied\". Shah Ismail wrote a letter in response too. He sent a bowl full of opium as a curse. And Yavuz sent to him a cloak, a stick, and a conical hat. Since the way was long, the soldiers were suffering both difficulties and trouble of provisions. Hemdem Pasha, who told about this situation to Yavuz, was executed immediately. But the soldiers showed the signs of rebel. The Janissaries surrounded the tent of Yavuz with their split-soled rawhide sandals at the tip of their spears. They shot a bullet to the tent and shouted altogether: We do not want! We do not want! Yavuz rushed out of the tent seeing the situation, and mounted on his horse staring at his soldiers, and delivered a fiery speech to them: \"O you cowards with soldier clothes, if there are ones of you who prefer the embraces of their children and wives to war, turn back!... I did not come here to turn back. I said when I was enthroned that we would suffer such troubles. So why do not you obey? If you are not going to war, I will go myself!...
The soldiers got excited on this speech, and went on. The army arrived at Çald覺ran Plain on 22 August 1514. Yavuz sent a woman dress to Shah Ismail. Iran army consisted of 120.000 people. In a short time, conflicts started in Çald覺ran Plain. At last, Shah Ismail army was routed. He escaped from the battlefield. The victorious Turkish army entered Tebriz. Famous pearly throne of Shah Ismail became Turks\'. The biggest but second war by Yavuz is \"Ehramlar Victory\". He fought this war against Cansu Gavri, Toman Bey, the ruler of Egypt Kolemens. Yavuz\'s forces met Egyptian Kolemens on 24 August 1516 in Mercidab覺k. He routed these forces and conquered Syria. Then Yavuz conquered Palestine with Gazze expedition and crossed Sinai desert and went to Cairo. He routed the forces of Toman bey in the vicinity of Ehramlar on 22 January1517. Egyptian country became Turkish territory. In this war, Kolemens killed Sinan Pasha, thinking that he was Yavuz Selim. Yavuz Selim, having heard that, said: Unfortunately. We conquered Egypt but lost Sinan!... Mutevekkil Alallah, the last Abbasi Caliph, delivered Caliphate to Yavuz Selim with holy trusts. After that, all Ottoman sultans became the caliph of all Muslims at the same time.
Yavuz Selim fell in water while he was walking around Nile river, but they saved him immediately. He asked how the soldiers were to Ibn-i Kemal, the great Turkish scientist who was always with him. He said that the soldiers were singing the following folk song in their tents:
Nemiz kald覺 bizim mülk-i Arabda
Nice biz dururuz am ü Haleb\'de
Cihan halk覺 kamu i-ü tarâbda
Gidelim biz dahi Rum illerine... Then Yavuz said:
Go tell Vizier! The army is departing tomorrow! Yavuz Selim departed after seven months and three days of staying in Egypt. He took 1000 camel load of gold and silver coins from Egypt and turned back to Istanbul. On the way, a piece of mud spread from the 襤bn-i Kemal\'s horse\'s leg touched the caftan Yavuz wore. Ibn-i Kemal went pale.
But Yavuz Selim said:
Take this robe, keep it in my treasury. We respect the mud spread from the leg of scholar horse. After Yavuz Selim appointed Pir Mehmet Pasha as his grand vizier, departed to launch an expedition against Hungary with his army. But he got sick in Sirt village between Çorlu and Ura sub-district. The boil on his back had grown. When he got worse, he took Koran in one hand, and left his earthly life in 1520 in his 53 reciting Yasin sura.
When his nine-year sultanate life full of victories ended, the world history had lost one of its greatest rulers.







HABER

3. köprünün ismi Yavuz Sultan Selim
Hürriyet 29 May覺s 2013

襤STANBUL’un fethinin 560. y覺ldönümünde temeli at覺lan 3. köprünün isminin Yavuz Sultan Selim olmas覺 karar覺n覺n, son dakikada tören alan覺nda al覺nd覺覺 örenildi.

Edinilen bilgiye göre bugüne kadar herhangi bir ad覺 olmayan projenin isim babal覺覺n覺 tören alan覺nda Cumhurbakan覺 Abdullah Gül, Babakan Tayyip Erdoan ve TBMM Bakan覺 Cemil Çiçek üstlendi.

Tören s覺ras覺nda Babakan Erdoan, köprü için düündüü birkaç ismi Gül ve Çiçek ile paylat覺. Üçlü, alternatif isimleri deerlendirdi ve en uygun ismin Yavuz Sultan Selim olaca覺na karar verdi.

Erdoan ve Çiçek, köprünün ad覺n覺 Cumhurbakan覺n覺n aç覺klamas覺n覺n daha uygun olaca覺 önerisinde bulununca ismi Gül aç覺klad覺.






HABER

OSMANLI-SAFEV襤 襤L襤K襤LER襤NDE KÜRTLER: KURGU VE GERÇEK

Konumac覺: Prof. Dr. Tufan GÜNDÜZ
Hacettepe Ünviersitesi Türkiyat Enstitüsü

Tarih: 20 Aral覺k 2014 - Cumartesi
Saat: 14.00
Yer: Türk Ocaklar覺 Genel Merkezi Galip Erdem Salonu

 
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